Withdrawal Agreement between the Eu and the United Kingdom
Start of Phase 1 of negotiations between the EU and the UK. The inclusion of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. In addition to an agreement on goods, the UK wants one on services, which make up a large part of its economy. It`s not part of the talks, but separate agreements on things like banks are still possible. Given the close relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom and their geographical proximity, the agreement also establishes a close security partnership. This facilitates cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs. In concrete terms, this means that both sides, for example within Europol, will continue to cooperate closely in the fight against crime and in the fight against money laundering, cross-border crime and terrorism. In addition, the agreement regulates the mutual exchange of data, such as passenger data or criminal records.
All this is done in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights and data protection standards comparable to those of the EU. Prime Minister Boris Johnson wins the British general election. It is therefore likely that the Brexit agreement will be adopted soon. If the UK Parliament approves the deal, the European Parliament will be able to vote on it in January. As regards the Irish border issue, a Northern Ireland Protocol (the “backstop”) annexed to the Agreement sets out a fallback position that will only enter into force if effective alternative arrangements cannot be demonstrated before the end of the transition period. If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary.  The UK Parliament decides that a further extension of the Brexit date is necessary as it wants to review the relevant legislation before voting on the Withdrawal Agreement.
The British government then called on the EU to set the Brexit date at the 31st. January 2020. Article 151.Participation of the United Kingdom in the EIB Group after the brexit withdrawal date is the abbreviation of two English words: “Britain” and “exit” and refers to the process of withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. On October 22, 2019, the House of Commons voted by 329 votes to 299 to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable he proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be suspended.   The Withdrawal Agreement provides for a transition period until 31 December 2020, during which the UK will remain in the Single Market to ensure smooth trade until a long-term relationship is agreed. If no agreement is reached by that date, the UK will leave the single market on 1 January 2021 without a trade agreement. A non-binding political declaration on the future relationship between the EU and the UK is closely linked to the Withdrawal Agreement. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the Political Declaration by replacing the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” in relation to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, Trade Fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the change excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the level playing field mechanism has moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration and the line in the Political Declaration that “the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas” has been deleted.  The European Union and the United Kingdom approved the Withdrawal Agreement.
The British Parliament and the European Parliament have yet to approve the Withdrawal Agreement. The period between the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 1 February 2020 and 31 December 2020 was a transition period agreed in the Withdrawal Agreement. It gave citizens, businesses and public administrations time to prepare for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU single market and the EU customs union. With the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 1 February 2020, the withdrawal agreement previously negotiated between the EU and the United Kingdom entered into force. The Withdrawal Agreement regulates key issues such as citizens` rights. This agreement was accompanied by a political declaration setting out an agreed framework for the negotiation of the future relationship. In line with the Political Declaration, on 25 February 2020, the 27 EU Member States agreed on the negotiating mandate of the European Commission, which led the negotiations on the future relationship with the UNITED Kingdom on behalf of the Member States. From March to December 2020, the EU and the UK conducted ongoing negotiations despite the difficulties caused by the COVID19 pandemic. .